Basis of preparation
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs). The financial statements have also been prepared in accordance with IFRSs adopted by the European Union and therefore the Group financial statements comply with Article 4 of the IAS Regulation. The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Companies Acts 1963 to 2013.
The Directors have, at the time of approving the financial statements, a reasonable expectation that the Company and the Group have adequate resources to continue in operational existence for the foreseeable future. Therefore they continue to adopt the going concern basis of accounting in preparing the financial statements. Further details are contained in the Directors’ Report.
Basis of accounting
The financial statements are prepared in US Dollars under the historical cost convention except for share-based payments. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for the assets. Fair value of share options at grant date is recognised over the vesting period.
Basis of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the Company and entities controlled by the Company made up to 31 December each year. Control is achieved where the Company has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.
All intra Group transactions, balances, income and expenses are eliminated on consolidation.
Determination of ore reserve estimates
The Group estimates its ore reserves and mineral resources based on information compiled by a Competent Person as defined in accordance with the Australasian Code for Reporting of Mineral Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserve of 2012 (the “JORC Code”). Reserves determined in this way are used in the calculation of depreciation, amortisation and impairment charges, the assessment of life of mine and for forecasting the timing of the payment of close-down costs, restoration costs and clean-up costs. In assessing the life of a mine for accounting purposes, mineral resources are only taken into account where there is a high degree of confidence of economic extraction. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating ore reserves, and assumptions that are valid at the time of estimation may change significantly when new information becomes available. Changes in the forecast prices of final products, production costs or recovery rates may change the economic status of reserves and may, ultimately, result in the reserves being restated.
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and represents amounts receivable for mineral products provided in the normal course of business, net of discounts and related sales taxes. Sales of mineral products are recognised when mineral products have been delivered. Typically, delivery takes place when product is loaded on the customer’s vessel, with most sales being made on either a “free on board” (“FOB”) or a “cost, insurance and freight” (“CIF”) basis. Amounts billed to customers in respect of shipping and handling are classed as sales revenue where the Group is responsible for shipping and handling. All shipping and handling costs incurred by the Group are recognised as operating costs. If the Group is acting solely as an agent, amounts billed to customers are offset against the relevant costs.
Finance income represents deposit interest earned. It is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the Group. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
Assets held under finance lease are recognised as assets of the Group at their fair value or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments, each determined at the inception of the lease. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the statement of financial position as a finance lease obligation. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease obligation so as to directly achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are charged directly against income, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalised in accordance with the Group’s policy on borrowing costs.
Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to the statement of comprehensive income on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Benefits received and receivable as an incentive to enter into an operating lease are also spread on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Retirement benefit costs
Payments to defined contribution retirement schemes are charged as an expense as they fall due.
The individual financial statements of each Group entity are prepared in its functional currency which in each case is US Dollars. US Dollars is also the presentation currency for the consolidated financial statements.
In preparing the financial statements of the individual entities, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At each statement of financial position date, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at rates prevailing on such statement of financial position date.
Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, and on the retranslation of monetary items, are included in the statement of comprehensive income for the year.
All borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use. Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.
The tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the statement of comprehensive income because it excludes items of income or expenses that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group’s liability for current tax is calculated using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the statement of financial position date.
Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit, and is accounted for using the statement of financial position liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that is probable that taxable profits will be available against deductible temporary differences which can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary differences arise from the initial recognition of goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiary undertakings, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each statement of financial position date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset is released. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the statement of comprehensive income, except when it relates to items charged or credited directly to equity, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its current tax assets and tax liabilities on a net basis.
Operating profit or loss is stated after charging all costs arising from continuing operations, other than those permitted to be capitalised but before finance income, finance costs, foreign exchange gain or loss and taxation.
Exploration and evaluation expenditure
Exploration and evaluation expenditure activity involves the search for mineral resources, the determination of technical feasibility and the assessment of commercial viability of an identified resource. Exploration and evaluation expenditure is charged to the statement of comprehensive income as incurred except where the existence of a commercially viable mineral deposit has been established. Capitalised exploration and evaluation expenditure considered to be tangible is recognised as a component of property, plant and equipment at cost less impairment charges. As the asset is not available for use, it is not depreciated. All capitalised exploration evaluation expenditure is monitored for indications of impairment. To the extent that capitalised expenditure is not expected to be recovered it is charged to the statement of comprehensive income.
Property, plant and equipment
The cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price except for plant that was revalued prior to the date of transition to IFRS (2005), any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management and the estimated closure costs associated with the asset.
Construction in progress expenditures for the construction and commissioning of property, plant and equipment are deferred until the facilities are operational, at which point the costs are transferred to property, plant and equipment and depreciated at the applicable rates.
Property, plant and equipment are depreciated over their useful life on a straight line basis, or over the remaining life of the Mine if shorter, or on a unit of production basis. The major categories of property, plant and equipment are depreciated as follows:
Plant & Equipment
Units of production basis
Units of production basis
Buildings & Airstrip
3 to 5 years
Fixtures & Equipment
3 to 10 years
Units of production depreciation is calculated using the quantity of heavy mineral concentrate extracted from the Mine for processing or sterilised in the period as a percentage of the total quantity of heavy mineral concentrate planned to be extracted in current and future periods based on the mining reserve. The mining reserve is updated on an annual basis for results of drilling programmes carried out, mining activity during the year, and other relevant considerations. The unit of production depreciation rate is adjusted as a result of this update and applied prospectively.
Capital spares consist of critical plant spares with estimated useful lives greater than one year and are included in property, plant and equipment. Capital spares are stated at the cost less accumulated depreciation and included in property, plant and equipment.
Residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at each statement of financial position date. Changes to the estimated residual values or useful lives are accounted for prospectively.
Mineral exploration and project development costs, including finance costs and lender and advisor fees for a mine during the period before such mine is capable of operating at production levels in the manner intended by management are deferred and included in property, plant and equipment. In addition, expenses including depreciation net of revenue earned during commissioning the mine in the period before it was capable of operating in the manner intended by management are deferred. These costs include an allocation of costs, including share-based payments, as determined by management and incurred by Group companies. Interest on borrowings relating to the mine construction and development projects are capitalised until the point when the activities that enable the mine to operate in its intended manner are complete. Once the mine is operating in the manner intended by management, the related costs are written off over the life of the estimated ore reserve of such mine on a unit of production basis. Where the mine project is terminated or impairment in value has occurred, related costs are written off immediately.
Impairment of non-current assets
At each statement of financial position date, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its non-current assets including construction in progress to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where the asset does not generate cash flows that are independent from other assets, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.
The recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value-in-use. In assessing value-in-use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised as an expense immediately.
Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised as income immediately.
Product inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost comprises direct materials, direct labour costs and overheads, including depreciation incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is calculated using the weighted average method. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price less all estimated costs of completion and costs to be incurred in marketing, selling and distribution. Quantities are assessed primarily through surveys and assays.
Consumable spares are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is calculated using the weighted average method and comprises the purchase price and related costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Financial assets and financial liabilities
Financial assets and financial liabilities in respect of financial instruments are recognised on the Group’s statement of financial position when the Group becomes party to a contract relating to such instrument.
Trade receivables are initially recognised at fair value, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Appropriate allowances for estimated irrecoverable amounts are recognised in profit or loss when there is objective evidence that the asset is impaired. The allowance recognised is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, demand deposits and other short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to a known amount of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.
Financial liabilities and equity
Financial liabilities and equity instruments issued by the Group are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into and the definitions of a financial liability and equity instrument. An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Group after deducting all of its liabilities.
The warrants, which are not listed or admitted to trading and which have limited transferability rights, have an exercise price, denominated in a currency not being the Company’s or Group’s functional currency, of Stg£29.09p, and an exercise period of five years, commencing thirteen months after the date of issue. As the warrants are not issued in the entity’s reporting currency, they do not meet the requirements in IAS 32 of settlement in a fixed amount of the value of equity, and therefore are recorded at fair value. As a result the warrants are re-measured at each reporting date and the increase or decrease in the fair value is reported as a finance cost or income in the statement of comprehensive income.
Interest-bearing bank loans and overdrafts are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs directly attributable to the bank borrowings, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method. Any difference between the proceeds and the settlement or redemption of borrowings is recognised over the term of the borrowings in accordance with the Group’s accounting policy for borrowing costs.
Trade payables are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs directly attributable to the payables, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method.
Share capital issued by the Company is recorded at the value of proceeds received, net of direct issue costs. The only equity instruments of the Group are ordinary and deferred shares.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative instruments including forward foreign currency contracts are used for statement of financial position risk management. Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which the relevant derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at their fair value. Fair values are obtained from quoted market prices in active markets. Where these are not available fair values are obtained from valuation techniques including discounted cash flow and option pricing models. All derivatives are carried as assets when the fair value is positive and as liabilities when the fair value is negative. Derivatives are classified as held for trading unless they are designated and effective as hedging instruments.
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Group will be required to settle that obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration to settle the present obligation at the statement of financial position date, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. Where a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows.
When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognised as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
Mine closure provision
The mine closure provision represents the Directors’ best estimate of the Group’s liability for close-down, dismantling and restoration of the mining and processing site, but excluding reclamation of areas disturbed by mining activities, which is covered under the mine rehabilitation provision. A corresponding amount equal to the provision is recognised as part of property, plant and equipment and depreciated over its estimated useful life. The costs are estimated on the basis of a formal closure plan and are subject to regular review. The mine closure provision is determined as the net present value based on a risk free rate of such estimated costs. Changes in the estimated timing or costs are recorded by an adjustment to the provision and corresponding adjustment to property, plant and equipment. The unwinding of the discount on the mine closure provision is recognised as a finance cost and capitalised if eligible.
Mine rehabilitation provision
The mine rehabilitation provision represents the Directors’ best estimate of the Company’s liability for reclaiming areas disturbed by mining activities. Reclamation costs are recognised in each period in the statement of comprehensive income based on the area disturbed in such period.
The legal provision represents the Directors’ best estimate of the Company’s liability for costs associated with a defamation case and further actions taken by a former Director.
Executive Director bonus provision
The key features of the Annual Bonus Scheme for the Executive Directors is the payment of a bonus earned for target performance which is deferred for three years.
The Group issues share options to certain Directors, employees and consultants. Share options are measured at fair value at the date of grant. The fair value determined at the grant date of the share options is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Group’s estimate of the shares that will eventually vest and adjusted for the effect of non-market based vesting conditions. Fair value is measured using a Black-Scholes pricing model. Share options granted to employees of subsidiary undertakings of the Company are recognised as an expense in the statement of comprehensive income of the subsidiary undertaking and as a capital contribution in the statement of financial position. The share-based payment is capitalised when its costs is directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use. The policy described above is applied to all equity-settled share-based payments granted after 7 November 2002 that vested after 1 January 2005.